India has shown inequalities in the category of health and education in the Human Development Index, released in 2022.
The Human Development Index developed by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) involves four indicators. These consist of three dimensions namely per capita income, health and education. These parameters are made scale-free using global goal posts that are held constantly. It permits inter-country and temporal comparisons.
Human Development Index is used in mapping humanistic global development scenarios and provides input in national planning. Despite India\’s efforts in the improved spending on the social sector, the desired outcomes have not been achieved.
Experts believe that even with the substantial increase in the GDP along with continuous and innovative reforms at the public policy level, it has not been able to raise the standard of living. It has also not helped bring significant improvement in indicators such as IMR, MMR and participation of women in various domains.
India has the traditional inability to ensure equality across various states between gender. Women\’s participation in the workforce is still less, which makes them less empowered than men. The necessary steps that can be taken to bring within the top slots are as follows:
Overcoming investment is one of the major challenges. More investment is needed in areas such as education, infrastructure, etc. The inequalities in education and health are found to be more than twice that of the very high and high HDI categories. Improving investments in the education sector will lead to, not only short-term but also long-term development.
The performance of educational institutions must be evaluated in a timely manner. This can be done through innovative methods such as outcome budgeting and social auditing of programs. Participation of community members must also be made essential from policy-making to policy evaluation to achieve positive results.
India has made enormous efforts to reduce inequality but is yet to achieve the desired results. The major challenge is posed by the lack of coordination between agencies. Moreover, education must be equally mandated in institutions in the social, economic and political categories through the system of reservation in the right manner.
Governance must be reformed by adopting new techniques which remove the hurdles affecting the real development of the country. One of the recent initiatives India has taken to reform governance is the introduction of a Common Admission Portal, which enables the students to complete the process in an easy manner.
Research and Development must be necessarily improved to circumvent innovative policies and programs. This will help in dealing with new developmental challenges. Real Growth and Challenges demand innovative and profound solutions which can be achieved only through the enhancement of the research sector.